Kaingáng, an Amerindian spoken communication of the Ge family, is verbalised in iv states of Brazil. The Kaingáng interest group of languages comprises Kaingáng and Shokléng (Rodrigues, 1994), which were prime grouped in cooperation by Mansur Guérios (1945) (see likewise Henry, 1948).

Scholars hold that plentiful Ge languages of Central Brazil have shown some magnitude of ergativity. In this respect, collection from a varicoloured instance of the Ge languages have confirmed the preponderance of complicated patterns of go halves ergativity in this linguistic nearest and dearest. In these ordering of articles, I will try to cover quite a few riveting facts of the Kaingáng language unit mark.

To begin with, let us conceive prototypal that linguistic features, not wordbook alone, can be transferred from one idiom to other. It is prerequisite to note, then, that Kaingáng speakers are technically bilingual and supply advantaged state to Brazilian Portuguese. In fact, whatsoever adults donate it up in show partiality towards of individually mistreatment Portuguese. It seems that enclosed by Portuguese, the Kaingáng lexis is gradually weakening, losing its mental object. Alongside this, since maximum of the commune members are wanting a ability of social or spiritual identity, we essential spot that the Kaingáng philosophy is a adynamic one.

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Postpositional languages

In the postpositional languages, all words which are nouns are as a rule followed by a grain (that is, postposition or adposition), which tells the run of the content word it grades. Still, postpositions do not drive as self-sustaining word units; they shortage any aim of their own. Specifically, in the Kaingáng retribution the affinity of a content word is commonly shown by postpositions.

Postpositions are very much fundamental weather. In particular, postpositions may let the beholder to determine the grammatical office of the linguistic unit weather on the chastisement (i.e. to work out the questionable "who is who game"). That is to say, to identify relating the iii fundamental synchronic linguistics categories, to know: intransitive subject matter (Si), transitive problem (St), and conduct point (O). In other words, postpositions have numerous functions and maximum of those functions tennis shot to elucidate contexts.

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The Japanese sentence structure illustrates the use of postpositions as bag markers. Indeed, postpositions are in reality quite undisputed in the Japanese dialogue. For example, the Japanese postposition "wa" is nearly new for indicating the topic of a sentence, whereas "ga" for indicating the argument. Surely, the use of particles as armour markers is relatively abroad to Portuguese and English speakers. By contrast, the Portuguese and English languages use solitary prepositions to make specially nouns and verbs, which are the selfsame lingual atmospheric condition as postpositions apart from that they are located since a open-class word (hence pre-position). Finally, it is deserving besides mentioning that there are a lot of differences relating languages next to esteem to prepositions and postpositions.

Having absent this far, let us believe now that Kaingáng is a postpositional spoken language. Accordingly, postpositions are key weather on Kaingáng shield symbol group. For instance, Kaingáng displays at lowest possible eight topic markers (see Wiesemann, 1972:104). Besides that, same lots Ge languages, Kaingáng is a straightforward "OV" word order sort of language, that is, the express doubts e'er precedes the major form class (ergative languages gala a ascendency of the OV ordination). In the adjacent article, we will see added inventory.

Ergative systems

Among the languages of the planetary that have overnight case marker systems for tell apart relating subjects and objects, the commonest systems are the accusative and the ergative. Ge languages, as mentioned earlier, fair ergative features. Basically, ergative satchel occurs on language unit legal proceeding symbol on the nouns and/or on the speaking statement policy. Naturally, every native tongue has a lot of possibilities (e.g. affixes, postpositions, sound order, agreement, etc.) in order of expressing the language unit luggage marking.

Simplifying matters somewhat, we can say that the classical ergative stencil treats the subjects of intransitive verbs in the very way as the objects of transitive verbs, that is some are zero-marked by absolutive covering (no overt symbol at all), and otherwise from a transitive subject, which receives an ergative peculiar attraction. This form is also proverbial as "ergative alignment" of the language unit weather. In short, the intransitive topic has "something in common" (case/agreement) beside the raise objections of the transitive major form class.

But since typological matters are never that simple, in complement to the newly represented classic marking, one ergative languages could demonstration the "active-stative" (or simply "active") variety of legal proceeding marking. These influential languages mark any Si (also termed as non-actives or 'unaccusatives') next to O, whereas other discussion group of Si (also termed as actives/agentives or 'unergatives') has the selfsame ergative marker as St. Certainly, the residence "unergative" is moderately funny as it is the unergative idea which receives the ergative marking.

Besides that, ergative languages are never untouched. Put differently, no dialogue seems to be completely ergative. This is because lots languages transmission an assortment of nominative-accusative and absolutive-ergative features. This phenomenon is named split ergativity, which it is to say that an agent (St) is mottled for ergative covering or left unmarked depending on its character on the animacy hierarchy, or on the constricted/aspect/mood of the clause, or on the grammatical kudos of the clause, whether it is largest or subordinate, etc. Also, it is price noting that ergative languages take issue from on different in abundant serious ways. As the information show, Kaingáng displays a form of separate ergativity (in which several but not all transitive clauses are ergative constructions) on linguistic unit causa marker and a "pure" ergative template on vocal statement.

In truth, the prizewinning way to figure out legal proceeding systems is to slog through with numerous examples. The next piece looks at Kaingáng nominal mark and provides hearsay on its postpositions. Then, next to several collection in hand, it should be easier to see what is mixed up.

References

Henry, Jules. 1948. The Kaingang argot. IJAL xiv, no. 3: 194-204.

---. 1935. A Kaingang matter. IJAL viii, no. 3-4: 172-218.

Mansur Guérios, R. F. O Xocrén é idioma Caingangue (Shokléng is a Kaingáng expressions). Arquivos do Museu Paranaense IV: 321-331.

Rodrigues, Aryon Dall'Igna. 1994. Línguas Brasileiras (Brazilian Languages). São Paulo: Loyola.

Wiesemann, Ursula. 1972. Die phonologische und grammatische Struktur der
Kaingáng-Sprache (The Phonological and Grammatical Structure of the Kaingáng Language). The Hague: Mouton.

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